Monday, May 20th, 2019

Rob Thomas – One Less Day (Dying Young)

Today on the Jukebox, Rob Thomas welcomes you to ’90s Monday…


[Video]
[4.00]

Katherine St Asaph: And he went sky diving, he went rocky mountain climbing, he went 2.7 seconds before ripping off fun.
[5]

Will Adams: Rob Thomas is back! And in the interim he’s apparently listened to fun. Like, a lot. And now my enthusiasm has waned.
[4]

Pedro João Santos: Who said the second half of Prism had no impact?
[3]

Tobi Tella: Glad that Rob is feeling like a celebration of life — unfortunate that he also felt the need to celebrate the most generic mom-pop sound out there.
[4]

Katie Gill: Generally speaking, songs about not burning out aren’t that sexy. Growing old can be sexy. Burning out can be sexy! But songs where someone happily sings about the fact that he’s not afraid to be middle aged with Auto-Tune that seems desperate to hide the inevitable cracks in the voice just aren’t sexy. The entire song feels so inoffensive and generic in a middle of the road way that I fully suspect it to be playing in the background of a trailer for a new, inspirational, Book Club or Poms-esque movie tailor-made for an audience of a certain age.
[3]

Taylor Alatorre: This song is so desperate to be described in every review as “life-affirming” that it sanitizes death to the point of becoming a mundane middle-class inconvenience, one that can be readily overcome by drinking whatever glasses of water per day and reading a Wikihow article about networking. Does some nice things with gated drums in the second half, though.
[4]

Alfred Soto: So many friends have “fallen away” — he had not thought death had undone so many. In response, Rob Thomas borrows a vocoder, Mumfordized arrangements leavened with latter-day Arcade Fire and a faint Irish melody, and mythologizes a career that has been a bizzer’s dream since 1996. 
[4]

Maxwell Cavaseno: Rob Thomas is a staple in my mother’s life. That realm of particular ’90s/early-’00s AOR like Matchbox 20, later Goo Goo Dolls and Train has been a fixture for her in the years of shepherding children and driving across the Tri-State for rapidly approaching 20 years. As a result, I don’t wanna say I like the guy, but I likewise have an ability to recognize him as more than just the “Smooth” meme. Sometimes I play with the idea that Matchbox 20 should be in the “Fake Replacements Canon of the ’90s” I have in my head (thus creating the bizarre mental image of Paul Westerberg jamming on Santana hits). Sometimes I just remember the atrocious music video for “Lonely No More” and wonder how people had no issues with this dude jacking Maroon 5’s (then not so readily mocked) bit. Sometimes like now, I get to hear new songs where he’s decided to emulate .fun and The Lumineers a few years late for an audience who probably are so politely resigned and aged out they could’ve even missed all that! Rob Thomas isn’t going to win my heart with his particular brand of well-crafted blandness, but there’s something fascinating about him being able to keep up — albeit a few too many years behind — when he doesn’t have to, and likewise has an audience who’d let him do so. Thinking about the things that now mean so little to me in retrospect after feeling Of Note for so long, and knowing they’ve slipped before someone who’s learned not to care from the circumstance of having to live so much longer is a better gift than any actual song I’ll get out of the guy who wrote “Real World,” a song even my 8-year-old brain could recognize as THE CORNIEST STUFF EVER. He hasn’t changed, but there’s reasons why that’s good.
[5]

Saturday, May 18th, 2019

TSJ Eurovision 2019 Liveblog – The Grand Final

Thanks so much for joining our annual liveblog! Our archived chat can be found below the jump. We will be covering Duncan Laurence’s winning song “Arcade” next week on the Jukebox, so stay tuned.

(more…)

Saturday, May 18th, 2019

Bonus Tracks for Week Ending May 18, 2019

It’s Eurovision Finals Day! We’ll be liveblogging the final later today, and you can catch up on our live coverage earlier this week of the first and second semifinals. But you might need something to pass the time before the final. Or you might be boycotting Israel and/or Madonna and/or Graham Norton and/or overly enthusiastic Australians. Or Eurovision may just not be your thing. Regardless, here are some creative outputs by our writers for you to enjoy!

Friday, May 17th, 2019

Ed Sheeran & Justin Bieber – I Don’t Care

Take his hand, stop, or ban the man from the Jukebox?


[Video]
[3.00]

Jacob Sujin Kuppermann: “At a party I don’t want to be at” is exactly how this song makes me feel.
[2]

Taylor Alatorre: “I Don’t Care” is a layer cake of falsehoods. From the opening chord progression you can already guess that this is not going to be a song that explores alienation or nonconformity in any serious, sustained way, but a conventionally reassuring tune in which all worries are resolved through the timely intercession of “my baby.” That alone is not disqualifying, but the moments where Bieber and Sheeran try to convince us there’s something behind all this nothing are the moments where the song’s flimsy foundations are laid bare. In lieu of worldbuilding, they serve us a handful of attention-grabbing lyrics such as “crippled by anxiety” and “I hate everyone here” — lyrics that, in their suddenness, only highlight how unearned they are. What exactly is so terrible about these parties they keep getting invited to and inexplicably attending? We’ll never know. It doesn’t help that the Max Martin/Shellback production is as nondescript as can be, aiming for the intersection of dancehall and trop house and instead landing somewhere in an empty field with no recognizable landmarks.
[2]

Andy Hutchins: Thank goodness for the fizzy-yet-restrained production by Max Martin and Shellback, the very necessary flotation device for what could otherwise be a dark, honest song about codependency that verges on the deeply creepy. Biebs does admit to anxiety in a brief emergence from his twin ongoing crises — would you rather be under the Hillsong trance or pondering having Stephen Baldwin as a father-in-law? — but this is otherwise either a party jam about the wisdom of not going to parties, a lane Alessia Cara pretty effectively drove a few years back, or a song about loving the one you’re with and hating everyone else, something that Ellie Goulding, Swae Lee, and Fucking Diplo somehow made a better endeavor six months ago. I will be here for Billie Eilish figuring out, some time from now, that there is one hell of a dirge to be salvaged from this; I am not here for this as currently constructed now, nor ever.
[3]

Stephen Eisermann: This definitely makes me miss Justin Bieber’s material (which, WHAT), but it feels a bit too timid to be the superstar collaboration that it is. I do think that the song does a good job of placing Sheeran’s and Bieber’s styles together, but rather than sounding good, it proves that the two styles don’t blend well. It’s not bad, it’s just not enough. 
[4]

Nicholas Donohoue: This is the logical trend line for Bieber and Sheeran. They’ve essentially been swapping and converging towards musical ideas for the past four years. A track where you struggle to distinguish the two and no complexity is added to a drum beat plus a groan of a melody line about how parties suck, but your girlfriend is nice is very correct for the both of them and very bland for the rest of us. 
[2]

Alex Clifton: It’s a classic Ed Sheeran composition, which is to say it’s catchy with at least one feature I hate (in this case, it’s the howling the “OOH OOH OOH OOH” bit). Surprisingly this lacks the overly revealing lyrics that are the hallmark of Sheeran songs, and it tones down the sappiness so we’re not stuck with any kissing toothbrushes. It’s just… fine, though. For a song about anxiety and letting go, I really wish there were more musical movement instead of being ebullient all the way through — having a hooky chorus paired with slower or more fraught sections might’ve been a bit too on the nose, but I need something. I’m glad that Bieber is talking publicly about his mental health struggles but when he sings about being “crippled with anxiety” I don’t go there with him because the production won’t let me. Had the verses been taken in a different direction this might’ve been more successful overall, but hell if it’s not going to be stuck in my head for the next week.
[4]

Alfred Soto: A shrewd son of a bitch who writes dumb songs whose hooks he encrusts with tetanus, Ed Sheeran pairs with the only pop star whose ubiquity has fuck all to do with his compassion, brains, or looks. Bieber and Sheeran’s harmonies provide the only known moment of sympathy in the former’s recording career, but it doesn’t enliven or inhabit this “Shape of You” knockoff.
[4]

Iris Xie: It’s just so tired. Even the whistling sounds under duress, like they were forced to make a pop song under gunpoint because Scooter Braun is in competition with Kris Jenner for the most amount of $$$$ before 2019 is over. I’d be a lot more interested in the storyline around such a vapid song and how on earth these two pop stars could make such a soulless song. The fake trumpet and lack of harmonies sound like a bullshit essay that you would scrawl and drop off into your 8th grade English teacher’s mailbox. 
[0]

Scott Mildenhall: If Ed Sheeran, Justin Bieber and you, the listener, were the only three people to ever feel disaffected, this single would be met with confusion. Luckily, alienation is further from being the exception than the rule, so it’s actually at the top of the charts. With that in mind, would it not be more realistic to offer listeners a chink of light, rather than relaying the destructive instinct that everyone else is so much more together (and so much more shallow) than they are? This is far from the first song to play into that temptation, and perhaps it can build community by implication, but even that is undermined by the upshot that this is, above all, a love song. Sheeran and Bieber feel saved by the ones they have with them, and that is “I Don’t Care”‘s core. It has less to say for those who don’t feel saved.
[5]

Katherine St Asaph: The problem isn’t the premise — we’ve had centuries of songs about how parties rule, we can handle a few more about how they suck. (And Sheeran and Bieber are at the level of fame where they’re probably thinking of industry parties, their own circle of hell.) Nor is it the over-chill production, for once. Nor is it how it reminds me of Dream’s far superior “I Don’t Like Anyone.” Nor is it even the tangents about “not fitting in” that are one line away from “A lot of preps stared at me. I put up my middle finger at them.” The problem is that Ed Sheeran and Justin Bieber, as they do, make it all about their seduction skills. The heterosexual girl who’d be charmed by “shall we dance” would probably prefer her boyfriend in a suit and tie, or at least in something that took more than five seconds’ worth of effort. Justin Bieber’s confession of anxiety is about as convincing as ex Selena Gomez’s, and using it to flirt is offputting at best. And there’s a promise with this premise after all: If the party sucks so much, why not just leave?
[4]

Joshua Copperman: Clearly! 
[3]

Friday, May 17th, 2019

Shawn Mendes – If I Can’t Have You

A deliberation over our subscription to Non-Threatening Boys Magazine


[Video][Website]
[4.71]

Scott Mildenhall: Or, “There’s Something Holdin’ Me Back”. At least, ostensibly, because this is almost over-insistent where it probably hopes to be uplifting. Everything is pounding and staccato, delivering a sense of urgency, but when that urgency is fuelled by its non-fulfilment, is it really fun for anyone concerned? It could be said that this needs to calm down, but the lulls it already has only make it more jarring. There’s a good song here, but it needs focus.
[6]

Andy Hutchins: It’s weird that something is holding Shawn back here, given that this is the same song as “Nothing Holdin’ Me Back,” but warm strums and a smitten delivery admittedly work quite well for him, despite his limits.
[5]

Alfred Soto: Playing Nilüfer Yanya’s debut again this morning, I realized that precisely deployed guitar sguiggles and keyboards fascinate her and Shawn Mendes. So does polite vocal distortion. Mendes doesn’t distort himself enough.
[4]

Iris Xie: I’ve chewed on lint balls that had more taste than this.
[0]

Katherine St Asaph: Presumably Shawn Mendes et al. have heard Seinabo Sey’s “Good In You” out in public as much as I have. Because if they heard Yvonne Elliman, they’d not take this song anywhere near it.
[2]

Stephen Eisermann: Man, this is pretty fucking fun. It sounds like summer in a way that’s hard to explain, but I’ll try: you know that rare moment where everything feels like it’s going your way in your relationship, your job, your school, your LIFE and all of a sudden you realize you’re walking down a street with a big-ass grin and everyone is smiling back? That’s what this sounds like. I can ignore the been there, done that lyrics because it’s just so effortlessly peppy and bouncy that any criticism I have slips right off. Like the perfect beach day, it goes down so smooth. 
[8]

Jacob Sujin Kuppermann: This is so bright and shiny and joyful (even in its theoretically morose subject matter) that it’s almost begging me to hate it. And yet I love it, precisely for its complete and utter lack of complication. There’s nothing here but an excellently constructed, tightly sung hook laced into a deeply functional beat — more a tasteful coupe than the supercars that most works of pop genius drive. And at the heart of it all is Mendes, who finds a charisma and internal coherence here that his prior hits always lacked. “If I Can’t Have You” is pure pop confection, working relentlessly to make itself liked.
[8]

Friday, May 17th, 2019

Kylie Minogue – New York City

All you can do is step back in time


[Video][Website]
[5.62]

Andy Hutchins: Kylie’s reference point for a disco-pop track called “New York City” being 2000s-as-’80s production that largely wastes the utterly classic bass lines and grooves of its sample makes a lot more sense if you know this is a single from a fifth (!?!?) greatest hits album. Ah, nostalgia.
[4]

Scott Mildenhall: The biggest-selling of Kylie Minogue’s many hits collections, Ultimate Kylie, was released in 2004, and had room for two new songs of such quality — “Giving You Up” and the unimpeachable “I Believe In You” — that a more than serviceable third, “Made of Glass”, was relegated to b-side status. Fifteen years on, the Ultimate has been usurped by the Definitive, and the former’s formerly unknown fourth recording seems to have been uncovered. How could a song based on “Drop the Pressure” come from any other time than that evoked exactly by the first three? Accepting the reality that this is new is a pleasure. It’s refreshing, after Golden, and another reminder that this is an artist with more hats than Luton. Most tantalisingly, it raises the fantasy of a whole album of this stuff.
[7]

Tobi Tella: Coming off a more mature pop album, this is unabashedly fun. It’s joyous, simultaneously more clever than it seems and completely, meaninglessly upbeat — it feels quintessentially Kylie.
[7]

Will Adams: The Mylo sample is inspired, Kylie actually manages to sell the appeal of a big city without naming a single defining attribute (uh… it’s pretty!), and in theory this would wager at least a [7]. But the horrendous mastering job here absolutely kills the fun. It’s worst in the chorus, where you can actually hear Kylie’s vocals ducking in and out to account for the backing track being slammed to 10. It’s unconscionable that a song from this level of pop star could sound like it was ripped from LimeWire at 96kbps. What a waste.
[4]

Iris Xie: The chorus is basically the same peppy instrumental found in Carly Rae Jepsen’s “Now That I Found You,” but the compression is bloated and forces the synths to sound like they’re breaking apart at the edges and makes Kylie sound like a pixelated cyborg. It’s breezy, fleeting and perfunctory, and leaves me feeling like Kylie is phoning it in with a prequel to an actual dance song.
[5]

Jacob Sujin Kuppermann: The greatest argument against the power of travel as a culturing force is the second verse of this song. The rest is also almost offensively underwritten, but the production and the joy in Kylie’s verse is winning enough to mask that.
[4]

Alfred Soto: Kylie’s been fizzier and friskier than “New York City,” but she’s determined to show the Julia Michaels and Diplos how turning oneself into a medium through which the supernatural, mythopoetic Spirit of Pop Disco, about which Hegel was so eloquent, manifests itself to the world. 
[6]

Ian Mathers: I’m not sure how much either of them wants the comparison, but stacking this next to the Madonna single sure is a stark difference, huh?
[8]

Thursday, May 16th, 2019

TSJ Eurovision 2019 Liveblog – Semi-Final 2

Join us below the jump at 21:00 CEST for the second round of semi-finals!

(more…)

Thursday, May 16th, 2019

Lewis Capaldi – Hold Me While You Wait

Come write for us, Lewis!


[Video]
[3.57]

Katherine St Asaph: Lewis Capaldi’s upcoming album is called Divinely Uninspired to a Hellish Extent. Clearly he has a future in criticism!
[4]

Alfred Soto: Demanding she wait while he runs into the studio to record this wet fart is Franco-level authoritarianism. 
[0]

Iain Mew: Signs of being detached from UK pop music: between episodes of Biggleton the other day I listened to an unofficial chart show on Hits Radio and found myself greeting successive new songs with ‘this is essentially “One Kiss”‘ and ‘this is basically “Shape of You”‘. Which isn’t a new way for me to process, but it doesn’t seem right to be naming the two best-selling songs of the previous two years. In that context I’m at least glad that “Hold Me While You Wait” does something different from Lewis Capaldi’s previous megahit, “Literally Someone Like You” and has no single identifiable source. Even if that’s mostly because it has no identifiable anything much beyond an exhibition of Capaldi’s strained gulping.
[3]

Scott Mildenhall: Lewis Capaldi’s competition winner persona is pretty endearing, as heavily backed popstars’ public images go, but it would be good if it didn’t extend to his actual musical output. The capaciousness of his voice simply does not make up for a power ballad without a chorus. OK, it seemingly did similar for “Someone You Loved”, and with that said, fair enough. Most important is that this and the rest of his album are just in time for Love Island season. And then X Factor season. And then the Christmas season. Hopefully he enjoys his year.
[4]

Iris Xie: This is a very good song for those who are currently in the throes of completely miserable relationships and needing music to accompany their wailing and gnashing their teeth at the unjustness of it all, but are also tired of listening to Adele. That precision also makes it a fairly unbearable and draining listen for anyone not in that current situation. While maxed to the hilt in its accessible misery and chest-clutching despair, “Hold Me While You Wait” is curiously average and direct in a way that inspires me to want to open up a Hallmark Card store centered around breakups and bad decisions, especially with lyrics like: “If you’re gonna waste my time / Let’s waste it right.” The bridge starting with “This is you, this is me, this is all we need” would make a great cut for an end of season finale of a Shondaland drama, when you know that Shonda Rhimes decided to kill off another character due to being disgruntled with the actor, but you are supposed to ignore the metanarrative and feel “sad” for the tragic end of their character arc, when the blurred layers between celebrity gossip and in-universe narrative is the entire reason why you stick around and watch the montage anyway. By the end of the song, Capaldi is a wrung-out linty towel and the only response is “oof.”
[6]

Joshua Copperman: As of this writing, I just finished my review of I Am Easy To Find, the National’s most frustratingly ballad-y album. This initially sounds like a song cut from the record, Capaldi doing his best Matt Berninger, and I was prepared to defend it even if I knew it was bad. But then it pivots to the kind of song where “this is you/this is me/this is all we need” gets a breakdown all to itself. Even Mr. “I’m still standing in the same place/Where you left me standing” would show restraint. 
[4]

Will Adams: I can’t stop imagining what this could have sounded like if it were actually based on the maybe-embellished story about Lewis Capaldi asking his girlfriend for one more cuddle after she tells him that she “fucking hates” him. Unless it already was, and it’s the damp arrangement that’s meant to convey the pathetic situation.
[4]

Thursday, May 16th, 2019

Diplo ft. Cam – So Long

In which Diplo rides until he Cam no more…


[Video]
[5.44]

David Moore: So what is Diplo at this point? Electronic Dinner Music?
[5]

Katherine St Asaph: Since country radio continues to be reluctant to play women, can you blame female artists for pursuing collaborations that might actually pay off? (Country radio: “Of course we can, why wouldn’t we?”) And so we end up with another single whose closest tie to country is that it is a world of Chainsmoking. But exhausting as that may be, it isn’t the problem. The problem is how Cam and Diplo each make the other sound so damn boring.
[3]

Alex Clifton: Not a combination I expected (or, frankly, asked for) but Diplo’s production here is much chiller than I feared and it’s nice to hear Cam on a feature where she feels valued, as opposed to the Pat Monahan sex cult disaster of last year. I hear shades of Clean Bandit in the strings but “Rather Be” wears its heart on its sleeve. “So Long” is more subtle than that; I’m bobbing my head around, but I don’t want to scream out the words. I do, however, want to listen to it on repeat and am excited to have this soundtrack my summer roadtrips.
[7]

Alfred Soto: Get ready for an onslaught of country-electronic crossovers in the wake of “The Middle.” Cam’s work with Diplo, though, avoids the arena. The manipulation of stringed instruments is some of the producer’s most adventurous work since Usher’s “Climax.”
[7]

Ian Mathers: YouTube’s algorithm follows the Nudie suit drag of this video with a freshly-bearded Mike Posner doing an acoustic “I Took a Pill in Ibiza” (for me, at least), which still kind of feels like a subtweet whatever you think of that song or Fucking Diplo in general (especially when Cam’s performance here is so low-key winsome and charming).
[6]

Taylor Alatorre: 24/7 lo fi hip hop country radio – beats to relax/study to.
[6]

Iris Xie: It’s B-level JC Penney’s but for the ‘young teenage section’ music, and that’s what makes it work. It demands very little from the listener, with a thumping but not overwhelming beat. Also, the same perky Type-A fiddle from “Rather Be” comes back for its encore performance, except it is pushed to the background as a way to keep the listener’s interest for an otherwise unobtrusive song. The song puts forth the objective that it’s a bit passé now to have such big build-ups and drops, for its no longer post-2012 euphoria anymore and we are now hurtling towards something far more exhausting and nefarious. Capitalizing on the malaise, Diplo nerfs any possible emotional escalation through a low-energy “chill-ish” chorus and a pre-mature end. “So Long” is an EDM-pop song for when you don’t have the energy to deal with anything at all, ever, now, or in the future.
[6]

Stephen Eisermann: What does it say about Cam’s talent that this track – one so severely undercooked I hesitate to call it a full song – still manages to better than most of Diplo’s latest collaborations? Cam’s a goddamn treat and elevates even the most pedestrian material. 
[5]

Will Adams: Diplo cashing in on the yeehaw trend — in reliably cartoonish fashion — is hardly a surprise. What is surprising that this is happening simultaneously with him releasing far more interesting material in a different genre. But Diplo’s always been the enterprising sort, so “So Long” will get the push. The fiddles are probably meant to sound jaunty, but they just sound tired. Cam is probably meant to sound yearning, but she just sounds bored. Same here.
[4]

Thursday, May 16th, 2019

Logic ft. Eminem – Homicide

I put my orange four-inch door hinge in storage and ate porridge with George… also I used way too many napkins.


[Video]
[2.71]

Jacob Sujin Kuppermann: Chris D’elia’s Eminem impression is better than Eminem’s at this point. You hate to see it!
[1]

Katherine St Asaph: We get it: you can both rap. The next step is to have something to rap, and for Logic it’s multiple repetitions of nothing in particular, and for Em it’s dutiful references to A-Rod and Jay-Z and a year-old Offset track, as if the point of Eminem was the pop culture references and not the shock.
[4]

Tim de Reuse: In this song, Logic and Eminem say a lot of syllables per second while communicating as little as possible. It’s technically impressive and unbearably dull — the most exhausting four minutes of audio I’ve heard in a long time.
[2]

David Moore: There are so many words in the world, and usually we use words that we all know pretty well, like “pancake,” say, especially but not only if we’re talking about pancakes, but sometimes we use words that I would wager the vast majority of us do not know in any context, pancakes or no, like “autoschediaze,” which is an OED Word of the Day that my wife shared with me a few days ago and means “to do something hastily and without preparation,” which I think is an interesting but perhaps a cumbersome choice to use for an idea that you could get across with a colloquial expression like “wing it” instead, since if you wanted to make the colloquial expression fancier you could qualify it by saying something like “let’s just wing it, to use the colloquial expression,” the phrase “colloquial expression” itself seeming more or less fancy without seeming so self-consciously obscure, like some word you threw out there like you had something to prove, you know, real show-off words, most of them just filling space, filibustering — that’s a good show-off word, incidentally — a few of them very good words, sure, like “filibustering,” a few of them very large words, definitely, which is not to say they are good words necessarily — not that long words can’t be good words, as they often are, and any word is a good word if used well at the right time and in the right situation, except maybe for “utilize,” but of course my point here is that long words aren’t just good by dint of them being long — but eminently googleable words, I guess, since everything is googleable technically but not everything eminently so, and isn’t it cool that the word “googleable” itself is appropriately clumsy enough to capture the flavor of the action it’s describing, or the timbre, depending on which sense metaphor you want to use, anxious fingers sliding and stumbling over the keys, scrambling — my god, did I describe that correctly, was that the right word, “eminently” I mean, was that right, that word out of all available words, all of these words like drops in an ocean and heck, those are only the ones in English, can you even imagine!
[2]

Camille Nibungco: Conceptually a Logic and Eminem collab sounded exciting but quickly that romanticized idea was lost on me. Although the production is generically catchy, the emphasis on bombarding the lyrics “CHIKA” and incessantly rhyming “shit” with “shit” from Slim Shady and Slim Shady 2.0 was ultimately disappointing.
[3]

Will Adams: The prospect of these two going on a lyrical rampage that doesn’t say anything of substance seems dire, but a few points in the resulting song’s favor: 1) Calling the song “Homicide” instead of “Genocide,” the type of murder that’s actually referenced in the lyrics; 2) Em working in Chris D’elia’s impression into his actual flow (unfortunately undermined by them quoting the skit at the end in its entirety); 3) Creating a speed rap showcase where, unlike “Look At Me Now,” the participants are generally on even footing.
[4]

Stephen Eisermann: A master class at rapping fast, but all of the unearned arrogance just makes me miss prime Nicki. 
[3]